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Cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting of a tertiary hospital in north central Nigeria

Published on: 2020-04-07

Abstract

Background: Cognitive impairment is increasing worldwide with its burden affecting a wide range of adults. It is a less addressed and underdiagnosed complication of Diabetes Mellitus. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment among type 2 diabetic patients in the primary care setting of a tertiary hospital. It also determined the relationship between cognitive impairment and socio-demographic factors among participants. Materials and Method: It was a descriptive hospital-based cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 274 adult type 2 diabetic patients attending the Family Medicine clinics of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin in North Central Nigeria from March through May 2017. Interviewer-administered structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment among the respondents. Data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 (SPSS-21). Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment in this study was 27%. Mild cognitive impairment was commoner than severe cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment had a statistically significant relationship with the age, level of education and employment status of the respondents (p-values of 0.001, 0.026 and 0.014 respectively). Conclusion: Cognitive Impairment is common among type 2 diabetic patients in primary care. Primary Care Physicians should routinely screen type 2 diabetic patients for cognitive impairment as well as assess its pattern and risk factors. This would allow for the implementation of appropriate care to prevent cognitive impairment or its worsening among type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords

Cognitive impairment; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Mini-Mental; State Examination; Primary Care